Introduction to the Reading of Hegel: Lectures on the Phenomenology of Spirit is a book about Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel by Alexandre Kojève. Alexandre Kojève was a Russian-born French philosopher and statesman whose philosophical Some of Kojève’s more important lectures on Hegel have been published in English in the now classic Introduction to the Reading of Hegel. Jan 14, Introhution n rte Reading of Hegel: Lecttres on rle Phenomenology of Spirig . KojEve is the most thoughtful, the most learned, the most pro-.
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He would have okjeve be recognized by another Master. Hyppolite a left Hegelian with marxisant tendencies: This introduces into experience a set of ‘dualisms’ – between subject and object, man and nature, desire and duty, the human and the divine, the individual and the collectivity. And that is what Hegel says in the Introduction to the Phenomenology:.
And if Hegelian Science is dialectical or synthetical, it is only because it describes that real dialectic in its totality, as well as the series heggel consecutive philosophies which corresponds to that dialectical reality. But if by concept we mean the essential reality of the In-itself An-sich of the object, and by object, on the other hand, we understand the object [taken] as object, namely, as it is for another [i. If History begins with the Fight after which a Master dominates a Slave, the first historical period must certainly be the one in which human exist- 44 Summary of the First Six Chapter of the Phenomenology of Spirit ence is entirely determined by the existence of the Master.
For only in and by work does man finally become aware of the significance, the value, and the necessity of his experience of fearing absolute power, incarnated for him in the Master.
As for the fourth premise, it postulates the act of freedom. And yet, as long as it remains a Master’s freedom, kljeve situation cannot be otherwise. But it can happen and we know that this actually did happen one day, somewhere that the man begins to discuss with his adversary. Now, he became the Master’s Slave only because — in the begin- ning — he was a slave of Nature, joining with it and subordinating himself to its laws by accepting the instinct of preservation.
The claims of this document and even its existence are disputed, and it has never been released. The Master’s attitude, therefore, is an existential impasse. For there is no Desire without Life. As kojevve as the revealing description is correct, it can be said that ordo et connexio idearum idem est ac ordo et connexio rerum ; for the order and the connection of the real are, according to Hegel, dialectical.
If, then, the Desire is directed toward a “natural” non-I, the I, too, will be “natural. History is a processual movement in which division is subjected to reconciliation, culminating in ‘the end of history’, its completion in a universal society of mutual recognition and affirmation.
And thus in the long run, all slavish work realizes not the Master’s will, but the will — at first unconscious — of the Slave, who — finally — succeeds where the Master — necessarily — fails. Because he is a serious man, Kojeve has never sought to be orig- inal, and his originality has consisted in his search for the truth in the thought of wise men of the past.
Now, any addition Zutat [coming] from us becomes superfluous not only in the sense nach dieser Seite that [the] concept and the] object, the standard and what is to be verified, are present vorhanden in the Consciousness Bewusstsein itself [which we, as philosophers, study in the Phenomenology ]; but we are also spared the effort of comparing the two and uegel verifying in the strict sense, so that — since [studied] Consciousness verifies itself — in this respect too, only pure contemplation Zusehen is left for us to do.
It is not such an autonomous Consciousness, but all to the contrary, a dependent Consciousness, that exists for him. This well-known text lends itself to two misunderstandings. MoscowRussian Empire. Throughout this period, then, it is Mastery that will reveal heggel essence by realizing its existential possibilities through Action.
To desire non-Being is to liberate oneself from Being, to realize one’s autonomy, one’s Freedom. Plato himself or that disciple who is capable of understanding him.
And the core of that work is the careful and scholarly study of Hegel. This is obvious in the case of the death of both adversaries, since the human reality hegrl being essentially Desire and action in terms of Desire — can be born and maintained only within koeve animal life. Now, “to recognize” him thus is “to recognize” him as his Master and to recognize himself and to be recognized as the Master’s Slave.
To be a man, he hege to be recognized by another man. Desire is human — or, more exactly, “humanizing,” “anthropogenetic” — only provided that it is directed toward an- other Hegle and an other Desire. Thus it is that, before realizing Freedom, the Slave imagines a series of ideologies, by which he seeks to justify himself, to justify his slavery, to reconcile the ideal of Freedom with the fact of Slavery. The victory of reason was, for Bataille, a curse; its inevitable triumph in the unstoppable march of modernity brought with it homogeneity, order, and disenchantment.
Through death, they do away with their consciousness, which resides in that foreign entity, natural existence.
What is other for it exists as an object without essential-reality, as an object marked with the character of a negative-entity.
Subjects of desire . To be sure, Descartes could not realize absolute, Hegelian philosophy.
But this formulation would kokeve incorrect, or at least misleading. And is it not because of this that Hegel attains that absolute Knowledge to which his predecessors vainly aspired? This superiority, at first purely ideal, which consists in the mental fact of being recognized and of knowing that he is recognized as Master by the Slave, is realized kojwve materialized through the Slave’s Work.
Except for brief quotations in a review, this book, or parts thereof, must not be reproduced in any form without permission in writing from the publisher. Nevertheless, there is something in Man, in every man, that makes him suited to participate — passively or actively — in the realization hsgel universal history.
Absolute Knowledge became — objectively— possible because in and by Napoleon the real process of historical evolution, in the course of which man created new Worlds and transformed him- self by creating them, came to its end.
If man is nothing but his becoming, if his human existence in space is his existence in time or as time, if the revealed human reality is nothing but universal history, that history must be the history of the inter- action between Mastery and Slavery: The concept is time, and hence is related neither to time nor to eternity – this is Hegel’s position. Scientific experience perturbs the Kjoeve because of the active intervention of the Subject, who applies to the Object a method of investigation that is his kojrve and to which nothing in the Object itself corresponds.